Exploiting Diversity for Coverage Extension of Bluetooth-Based Mobile Services

  • Barbara M Masini1Email author,

    Affiliated with

    • Andrea Conti2,

      Affiliated with

      • Davide Dardari1 and

        Affiliated with

        • Gianni Pasolini1

          Affiliated with

          EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking20062006:078954

          DOI: 10.1155/WCN/2006/78954

          Received: 21 October 2005

          Accepted: 16 August 2006

          Published: 19 November 2006


          This paper investigates the impact of diversity reception techniques on the performance of Bluetooth (BT) packet transmission in wireless channels with fast fading and shadowing to improve the coverage extension. We firstly derive a tight parametric exponential approximation for the instantaneous bit error probability (BEP) in additive white Gaussian noise with parameters dependent on GFSK modulation format according to the BT standard. Then, from this expression, we derive the mean block error probability (BLEP) for DH packets transmission in Rayleigh fading channel by adopting different diversity reception techniques, such as selection diversity (SD) and maximal ratio combining (MRC). In particular, the joint impact of the diversity order, the combining techniques and the block length on the BLEP, is shown. For both MRC and SD schemes, we also obtain a tight and invertible bound on the BLEP, that enables us to analytically evaluate the quality of service expressed in terms of outage probability in channel affected by fading and shadowing and, as a consequence, the impact of multiple antennas on the system coverage.


          Authors’ Affiliations

          WiLab, IEIIT-BO/CNR, University of Bologna
          WiLab, ENDIF, University of Ferrara


          1. http://​www.​vicom-project.​it/​
          2. Specification of the Bluetooth System. Core, Version 1.0 B http://​www.​bluetooth.​com
          3. Zuerbes S, Stahl W, Matheus K, Haartsen J: Radio network performance of Bluetooth. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC '00), June 2000, New Orleans, La, USA 3: 1563–1567.
          4. Haartsen JC: The Bluetooth radio system. IEEE Personal Communications 2000,7(1):28–36. 10.1109/98.824570View Article
          5. Pasolini G, Chiani M, Verdone R: Performance evaluation of a Bluetooth-based WLAN adopting a polling protocol under realistic channel conditions. International Journal of Wireless Information Networks on "Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs): Standards, Research, Applications" 2002,9(2):141–153.View Article
          6. Andrisano O, Tralli V, Verdone R: Millimeter waves for short-range multimedia communication systems. Proceedings of the IEEE 1998,86(7):1383–1401. 10.1109/5.681369View Article
          7. Conti A, Win MZ, Chiani M, Winters JH: Bit error outage for diversity reception in shadowing environment. IEEE Communications Letters 2003,7(1):15–17. 10.1109/LCOMM.2002.807436View Article
          8. Conti A, Dardari D, Pasolini G, Andrisano O: Bluetooth and IEEE 802.11b coexistence: analytical performance evaluation in fading channels. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 2003,21(2):259–269. 10.1109/JSAC.2002.807345View Article
          9. Conti A, Dardari D, Masini BM, Pasolini G: On Bluetooth performance with diversity reception in fading channels. Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC '04), September 2004, Barcelona, Spain 2: 895–899.
          10. Soltanian A, Van Dyck RE: Performance of the Bluetooth system in fading dispersive channels and interference. Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM '01), November 2001, San Antonio, Tex, USA 6: 3499–3503.
          11. Simon MK, Alouini M-S: Digital Communication over Fading Channels: A Unified Approach to Performance Analysis. 1st edition. Wiley-Interscience, New York, NY, USA; 2000.View Article
          12. Win MZ, Winters JH: Virtual branch analysis of symbol error probability for hybrid selection/maximal-ratio combining in Rayleigh fading. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2001,49(11):1926–1934. 10.1109/26.966069MATHView Article
          13. Alouini M-S, Simon MK: An MGF-based performance analysis of generalized selection combining over Rayleigh fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2000,48(3):401–415. 10.1109/26.837044View Article
          14. Ma Y, Chai CC: Unified error probability analysis for generalized selection combining in Nakagami fading channels. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 2000,18(11):2198–2210. 10.1109/49.895025View Article
          15. Win MZ, Mallik RK, Chrisikos G: Higher order statistics of antenna subset diversity. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 2003,2(5):871–875. 10.1109/TWC.2003.816774View Article
          16. Conti A, Win MZ, Chiani M: On the inverse symbol-error probability for diversity reception. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2003,51(5):753–756. 10.1109/TCOMM.2003.811433View Article
          17. Mallik RK, Win MZ: Analysis of hybrid selection/maximal-ratio combining in correlated Nakagami fading. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2002,50(8):1372–1383. 10.1109/TCOMM.2002.801495View Article
          18. Rappaport TS: Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA; 1996.
          19. Gudmundson M: Correlation model for shadow fading in mobile radio systems. IEE Electronics Letters 1991,27(23):2145–2146. 10.1049/el:19911328View Article
          20. Erceg V, Greenstein LJ, Tjandra SY, et al.: An empirically based path loss model for wireless channels in suburban environments. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 1999,17(7):1205–1211. 10.1109/49.778178View Article
          21. Yip K-W, Ng T-S: Impact of power control and lognormal shadowing on the mean transmit power of Bluetooth devices. IEEE Communications Letters 2003,7(2):58–60. 10.1109/LCOMM.2002.807437View Article
          22. Janssen GJM, Stigter PA, Prasad R: Wideband indoor channel measurements and BER analysis of frequency selective multipath channels at 2.4, 4.75, and 11.5 GHz. IEEE Transactions on Communications 1996,44(10):1272–1288. 10.1109/26.539768View Article
          23. Stein JC: Indoor Radio WLAN Performance Part II: Range Performance in a Dense Office Environment. Harris Semiconductor, Intersil, Palm Bay, Fla, USA


          © Barbara M. Masini et al. 2006

          This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.